Fungalpedia – Note 52 Hydnum


Hydnum L.

Citation if using this entry: Bera et al. (2023) Basidiomycota. Mycosphere (in prep)

Index Fungorum, MycoBank, GenBank, Fig. 1


The genus Hydnum has been quite popular in ethnomycological uses for centuries and often commonly being called “hedgehogs,” “sweet tooth,” or “wood urchins” (Niskanen et al. 2018). In accordance with the Linnean concept, all the mushrooms with spinose hymenophore were once accommodated under Hydnum which subsequently reflects the more than 900 names attributed to the genus as per Index Fungorum ( (Swenie et al. 2018). However, Hibbet et al. (1997) through molecular phylogeny revealed that the character spinose hymenophore has independently evolved multiple times in the distantly related taxa, and thus most of the misidentified species were moved to other genera later on (Swenie et al. 2018). As per Donk (1956), Hydnum (typified by H. repandum L.:Fr.) is characterized by white to orange basidiomata, stichic basidia, and smooth hyaline basidiospores (Donk 1933Geesteranus 1971Restivo & Petersen 1976Pine et al. 1999). Geesteranus (1959) also described Hydnum as terrestrial mushroom with tomentum surfaced pileus and glabrescent to tomentose stipe, white to concolorous spined hymenium, homogenous context, and subglobose to ovoid basidiospores. The diversity of the ectomycorrhizal Hydnum has primarily been reported mainly from the temperate forests of Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America and few from tropical and subtropical forests of southeast Asia (Lee et al. 2002Feng et al. 2016) and the neotropics (Garibay-Orijel et al. 2006Sarmiento & Fontecha 2013Feng et al. 2016Niskanen et al. 2018Swenie et al. 2018). The members of this genus have been found to be associated with a wide variety of plant species belonging to the family Pinaceae (Agerer et. al 1996), Myrtaceae (McNabb 1971), Fagales (McNabb 1971Feng et al. 2016Niskanen et al. 2018), Salicaceae (Niskanen et al. 2018), Malvaceae (Ni­skanen et al. 2018), and Dipterocarpaceae (Lee et al. 2002). Previously Feng et al. (2016) estimated only 12 species of Hydnum were commonly accepted worldwide. In recent times, the global revisionary study of the genus along with phylogenetic analysis has raised the species number up to 50 suggesting its unveiled diversity (Buyck et al. 2017Niskanen et al. 2018Swenie et al. 2018Sugawara et al. 2022Justo et al. 2023). 

Type species: Hydnum repandum L.:Fr. image

Fig 1. Hydnum alboluteum (TUMH 6404, holotype). a. Basidiomata. b. Basidiospores. c. Basidia. d. Pileipellis. Scale bars: b-d = 10 μm. Drawn from Sugawara et al. 2022.



Agerer R, Kraigher H, Javornik B 1996 – Identification of ectomycorrhizae of Hydnum rufescens on Norway spruce and the variability if the ITS region of H. rufescens and H. repandum (Basidiomycetes). Nova Hedwigia, 63(1–2), 183–194.

Buyck B, Duhem B, Das K, Jayawardena RS, Niveiro N, Pereira OL, … & Hofstetter V 2017 – Fungal biodiversity profiles 21–30. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(1), 101–146.

Donk MA 1933 – Revision der Niederlandischen Homobasidiomycetae-Aphyllophoraceae II. Mededelingen van de de Nederlandse Mycologische Vereeniging, 22, 1–278.

Donk MA 1956 – The Generic Names Proposed for Hymenomycetes V “Hydnaceae” (continu­ation). Taxon, 5(4), 69–80.

Feng B, Wang X-H, Ratkowsky D, Gates G, Lee SS, Grebenc T, Yang ZL 2016 – Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal unexpected abundant diversity and significant disjunct distri­bution pattern of the Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum L.). Scientific Reports, 6(4), 1, 11.

Garibay-Orijel R, Cifuentes J, Estrada-Torres A, Caballero J 2006 – People using macro-fungal diversity in Oaxaca, Mexico. Fungal Diversity, 21, 41–67.

Geesteranus RA 1959 – The stipitate Hydnums of the Netherlands—IV. Auriscalpium SF Gray, Hericium Pers. ex SF Gray, Hydnum L. ex Fr., and Sistotrema Fr. em. Donk. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 1(1), 115–147.

Geesteranus RA 1971 – Hydnaceous fungi of the eastern old world. Verhandelingen Der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetenschappen, 1–75.

Hibbett DS, Pine EM, Langer E, Langer G, Donoghue MJ 1997 – Evolution of gilled mush­rooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94(22), 12002–12006.

Justo A, Hood AW, Swenie RA, Matheny PB 2023 – Hydnum atlanticum, a new species from Eastern North America. Fungal Systematics and Evolution, 11, 63–70.

Lee SS, Watling R, Noraini-Sikin Y 2002 – Ectomycorrhizal basidiomata fruiting in lowland forests of Peninsular Malaysia. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 274, 33–43.

McNabb RFR 1971 – Some new and revised taxa of New Zealand Basidiomycetes (Fungi). New Zea­land Journal of Botany, 9(2), 355–370.

Niskanen T, Liimatainen K, Nuytinck J, Kirk P, Ibarguren IO, Garibay-Orijel R, … & Tedersoo L 2018 – Identifying and naming the currently known diversity of the genus Hydnum, with an emphasis on European and North American taxa. Mycologia, 110(5), 890–918.

Pine EM, Hibbett DS, Donoghue MJ 1999 – Phylogenetic relationships of cantharelloid and clavaroid Homobasidiomycetes based on mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA sequences. Mycologia, 91, 944–963.

Restivo JH, Petersen RH 1976 – Studies on Nuclear Division and Behavior within Basidia in Hydnum umbilicatum. Mycologia, 68(3), 666–672.

Sarmiento E, Fontecha G 2013 – Conocimiento tradicional de los hongos en el occidente de Honduras. Revista Ciencia Y Tecnología, 13, 19–29.

Sugawara R, Maekawa N, Sotome K, Nakagiri A, Endo N 2022 – Systematic revision of Hydnum species in Japan. Mycologia, 114(2), 413–452.

Swenie RA, Baroni TJ, Matheny PB 2018 – Six new species and reports of Hydnum (Cantharellales) from eastern North America. MycoKeys, 42, 35–72.


Entry by

Ishika Bera, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde)