Fungalpedia – Note 146 Auriscalpium
Citation if using this entry: Bera et al. (in prep) – Fungalpedia, Basidiomycota 1. Mycosphere.
Auriscalpiaceae, Russulales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi
The term “Auriscalpium” was first used by Linnaeus (1753) as a specific epithet for the genus Hydnum L. as H. auriscalpium L. but later Gray (1821) raised it to the generic level and renamed the same as Auriscalpium vulgare Gray. Auriscalpium retained its single-species status until Maas Geesteranus reinvigorated it through an extensive series of studies and established a few novel species (Maas Geesteranus 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1971, 1974, 1976, 1978, Maas Geesteranus & Rammeloo 1979). The genus is characterized by its pale to dark brownish, hydnoid, laterally to centrally stipitate basidiocarps (Ryvarden 2001). The hymenium is spinoid producing ornamented, amyloid basidiospore (Ryvarden 2001). The morphological features of Auriscalpium closely resemble those of another genus, Gloiodon P. Karst., however, what sets Auriscalpium apart is the presence of a stipe (Ryvarden 2001). The type species, Auriscalpium vulgare commonly referred to as the “cone tooth,” for its capacity to thrive and reproduce on the cones of various conifers (Ryvarden 2001) and has been extensively documented in the Northern Hemisphere (Ryvarden 2001). Besides this species, all the other taxa of Auriscalpium primarily inhabit soil or deadwood (Hall & Stuntz 1971, Petersen & Cifuentes 1994, Ryvarden 2001, Larsson & Larsson 2003, Celio et al. 2007). Extensive diversity studies on the genus have been undertaken in mostly Europe and North America (Wang & Yang 2019). While Larsson and Larsson (2003) and Miller et al. (2006) provided evidence of relationships between various genera within the Auriscalpiaceae family, there is currently a lack of genus-specific phylogenetic analysis to elucidate the species diversity and interrelationships with Auriscalpium (Wang & Yang 2019). However, to study the Auriscalpium vulgare species complex, Wang and Yang (2019) used an integrated approach of morphological characters and phylogeny based on molecular markers nrITS, nrLSU, and rpb2 identified two novel species, Auriscalpium orientale P.M. Wang & Zhu L. Yang and Auriscalpium microsporum P.M. Wang & Zhu L. Yang. Currently, 11 species of Auriscalpium are recorded worldwide (https://www.speciesfungorum.org/).
Synonyms: Pleurodon Quél. ex P. Karst.
Type species: Auriscalpium vulgare Gray
Other accepted species: A. andinum (Pat.) Ryvarden
A. barbatum Maas Geest.
A. dissectum Maas Geest. & Rammeloo
A. fimbriatoincisum (Teng) Maas Geest.
A. gilbertsonii Ryvarden
A. luteolum (Fr.) P. Karst.
A. microsporum P.M. Wang & Zhu L. Yang
A. orientale P.M. Wang & Zhu L. Yang
A. umbella Maas Geest.
A. villipes (Lloyd) Snell & E.A. Dick
Figure 1. Auriscalpium barbatum (holotype). a. Basidiomata. b. Basidiospores. c. Detail of context under upper surface of pileus. d. Basidia, gloeocystidia, and skeletal hyphae. Clamp connections of hyphae. Magnification a × 1, b × 1400, c, d × 700. redrawn from Maas Geesteranus 1978.
Celio GJ, Padamsee M, Dentinger BT, Josephsen KA, Jenkinson TS, McLaughlin EG, McLaughlin DJ 2007 – Septal pore apparatus and nuclear division of Auriscalpium vulgare. Mycologia, 99(5), 644–654.
Linnaeus C 1753 – Species plantarum (Vol. 1). Impensis GC Nauk.
Maas Geesteranus RA (1963) Hyphal structures in Hydnums II. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensh. Series C 66, 426–430.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1962 – Hyphal structures in Hydnums. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 2(3), 377–405.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1964 – Notes on Hydnums II. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 3(2), 155–192.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1971 – Hydnaceous fungi of the eastern old world. Vehr. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensh. II, 60, 1–176.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1974 – A handful of South American Hydnums. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensh. Series C, 77, 5, 228–238.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1976 – Notes on Hydnums X. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensh. Series C, 79, 3, 273–289.
Maas Geesteranus RA 1978 – Notes on Hydnums XI. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 9(4), 491–500.
Maas Geesteranus RA, Rammeloo J 1979 – Two hydnoid fungi from Zaire. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Series C, 82, 2, 211–215.
MaasGeesteranus RA 1966 – Notes on Hydnums IV. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensh. Series C 69:329–333
Miller SL, Larsson E, Larsson KH, Verbeken A, Nuytinck J 2006 – Perspectives in the new Russulales. Mycologia, 98(6), 960–970.
Petersen RH, Cifuentes J 1994 – Notes on mating systems of Auriscalpium vulgare and A. villipes. Mycological research, 98(12), 1427–1430.
Ryvarden L 2001 – The genus Auriscalpium. Harvard Papers in Botany, 193–198.
Ishika Bera, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
(Edited by Kevin D Hyde)