Fungalpedia – Note 200, Gloiodon 


Gloiodon P. Karst. 

Citation if using this entry: Bera et al. 2024 (in prep) – Fungalpedia, Basidiomycota 1. 

Index FungorumMycoBank, Facesoffungi, GenBank, Fig. 1

Bondarzewiaceae, Russulales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi

Gloiodon belongs to Bondarzewiaceae and was initially documented by the Finnish mycologist Karsten (1879). Originally,  Gloiodon was introduced to encompass three wood-inhabiting species exhibiting hydnoid hymenium, Hydnum strigosum Sw.:Fr., H. hirtum Fr. and H. pudorinum  Fr. (Karsten 1879, Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). Later, Gloiodon, was confined to include solely Hydnum strigosum,, currently known as Gloiodon strigosus (Sw.) P. Karst. (Karsten 1879, Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). Gloiodon strigosus was considered the type species of this genus by many mycologists over time (Banker 19021910Miller 1933Donk 1956). This white rot-causing genus is characterized by annual, pileate, or effuse-reflexed basidiomata with its smooth to strigose surface texture (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). The basidiomata are generally dark brownish to blackish (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). The lower surface comprises conical spines (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). The hyphal system is monomitic with generative (sometimes sclerified) hyphae having clamp connections and pigmented skeletal hyphae with occasional clamps (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). The presence of gloeocystidia is evident in Gloiodon (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). The basidiospores are strongly amyloid with fine ornamentations (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). For a ,more extended period, Gloiodon was believed to be monotypic until the acceptance of Hydnum nigrescens Petch [≡ Gloiodon nigrescens (Petch) Maas Geest.] by Maas Geesteranus (1964). Later, Gloiodon occidentalis Ginns and G. stratosus (Berk.) Banker were also added as another species under the genus (Ginns 1988). As per the Red List of Macrofungi in Poland (Wojewoda & Ławrynowicz 2006), G. strigosus was considered an extinct species (Kirk et al. 2001) until it was rediscovered again (Bujakiewicz 2007). There has been quite a taxonomic debate regarding the affinity of Gloiodon to Auriscalpium Gray (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). Nevertheless, while Gloiodon species exhibit pileate-sessile or effuse-reflexed basidiomes, Auriscalpium species are distinguished by stipitate basidiomes. However, both these genera were included under Auriscalpiaceae (Maas Geesteranus 1963, 1971), which was later supported by the molecular studies by Hibbett & Thorn (2001) (Desjardin & Ryvarden 2003). However, based on the latest classification, Gloiodon is classified under Bondarzewiaceae (Wijayawardene et al. 2022)To date, only four species of Gloiodon have been accounted, which requires more documentation and molecular inferences (Species Fungorum 2023). 

Synonyms: Leaia Banker, Sclerodon P. Karst.

Type species: Gloiodon strigosus (Sw.) P. Karst.  

Other accepted species: (Species Fungorum – search Gloiodon)



Figure 1 – Gloiodon nigrescens (DED 7287). a Basidiomata. b Basidiospores. c Gloeocystidia. d Basidia. Scale bars: a = 10 mm, b = 5 μm, c & d = 10 μm. Redrawn from Desjardin & Ryvarden (2003).



Banker HJ. 1902 – A historical review of the proposed genera of the Hydnaceae (Vol. 29, No. 7). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 29, 443–447. Columbia University. 

Banker HJ. 1910 – A correction in nomenclature. Mycologia, 2(1), 7–11

Bujakiewicz A. 2007 – Gloiodon strigosus (Swartz: Fr.) P. Karst. (Bondarzewiaceae) in Poland. Acta Mycologica, 42(1), 69–73

Desjardin DE, Ryvarden L. 2003 – The genus Gloiodon. Sydowia, 55(2), 153–161. 

Donk MA. 1956 – The Generic Names Proposed for Hymenomycetes V,” Hydnaceae.” Taxon 5, 69–80. 

Ginns J. 1988 – New genera and species of lignicolous Aphyllophorales. Mycologia, 80(1), 63–71

Hibbett DS, Thorn RG. 2001 – Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes, 121–168. In: The Mycota VII Part B. McLaughlin, McLaughlin & Lemke, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg

Karsten PA. 1879 – Symbolae ad Mycologiam Fennicam. VI. Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 5, 15–46

Kirk MP, David PF, Stalpers JC. 2001 – Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi. 9th ed. CAB International, Wallinford, 655 pp

Maas Geesteranus RA. 1963 – Hyphal structures in Hydnums II. Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. (Ser. C) 66, 426–430. 

Maas Geesteranus RA. 1964 – Notes on Hydnums II. Persoonia-Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi, 3(2), 155–192

Maas Geesteranus RA. 1971 – Hydnaceous fungi of the Eastern World. – Verh. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. (2nd Series), 3(3), 1–175.

Miller LW. 1933 – The genera of Hydnaceae. Mycologia, 25(4), 286–302

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Sánchez-García M, et al. 2022 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa–2021. Mycosphere, 13(1), 53–453. 

Wojewoda W, Ławrynowicz M. 2006 – Red list of the macrofungi in Poland. In: Mirek Z, Zarzycki K, Wojewoda W, Szeląg Z, editors. Red list of plants and fungi in Poland. Cracow: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, 53–70. 


Entry by

Ishika Bera, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde, Samaneh Chaharmiri-Dokhaharani, & Achala R. Rathnayaka)