Fungalpedia – Note 58 Wirthiotrema


Wirthiotrema Rivas Plata, Kalb, Frisch & Lumbsch

Citation if using this entry: Fallahi et al. (2023) New genera in 2010-2011. Mycosphere (in prep)

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBank, GenBank, Fig 1.

Based on the molecular (nuLSU) and morphological data, Wirthiotrema was described to accommodate the Thelotrema glaucopallens group in Graphidaceae (Plata et al. 2010)The members of the family are an important component of tropical lichen communities. Wirthiotrema includes six species (Aptroot & Souza. 2021Sipman et al. 2012Plata et al. 2010), and Wirthiotrema glaucopallens (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Kalb was introduced as the type species. The genus members are found in the bark of tree trunks in shady to semi-exposed areas of lowland to lower montane rainforests. The genus is distinguished by a combination of myriotremoid thalli and apothecia, a paraplectenchymatous excipulum, its muriform, hyaline or brown, non-amyloid ascospores, and stictic acid as a dominant secondary substance (Plata et al. 2010). A phylogenetic study using nuLSU, mtSSU, RPB1, and RPB2 sequence data supported the placement of Wirthiotrema in Graphidaceae (Subfamily Graphidoideae) (Mangold et al. 2008Lumbsch et al. 2014).

Fig 1- Wirthiotrema glaucopallens (redrawn from Plata et al. 2010). a,b Thallus with apothecia. c,d Ascospores. scale bars: a,b= 1 mm (a,b); c,d= 10 μm. 


Type species: Wirthiotrema glaucopallens (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Kalb

Other accepted species:

Wirthiotrema desquamans (Müll. Arg.) Lücking 2012, 

Wirthiotrema duplomarginatum Lücking, Mangold & Lumbsch 2012, 

Wirthiotrema santessonii (Hale) Rivas Plata & Frisch 2010, 

Wirthiotrema trypaneoides (Nyl.) Rivas Plata & Lücking 2010, 

Wirthiotrema xanthopustulatum Aptroot & M.F. Souza 2021



Aptroot A, Souza MF. 2021- New crustose lichens from a tropical coastal area in Paraná (Brazil). Cryptogamie. Mycologie 42, 191-7.

Lumbsch HT, Parnmen S, Kraichak E, Papong KB, Lücking R. 2014- High frequency of character transformations is phylogenetically structured within the lichenized fungal family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Systematics and Biodiversity12, 271-91.

Mangold A, Martin MP, Klaus KA, L B, Luecking R, Lumbsch HT. 2008- Molecular data show that Topeliopsis (Ascomycota, Thelotremataceae) is polyphyletic. The Lichenologist 40, 39-46.

Plata ER, Klaus KA. L B, Frisch A. 2010- Wirthiotrema: a new genus for the Thelotrema glaucopallens group (Ascomycota: Ostropales: thelotremoid, Graphidaceae). The Lichenologist 42, 197-202.

Sipman HJ, Lucking R, Aptroot A, Chaves JL, Kalb K, Tenorio LU. 2012- A first assessment of the Ticolichen biodiversity inventory in Costa Rica and adjacent areas: the thelotremoid Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Phytotaxa 55, 1-214.


Entry by:

Maryam Fallahi, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang
University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)