Fungalpedia – Note 59 Phialosimplex
Citation if using this entry: Fallahi et al. (2023) New genera in 2010-2011. Mycosphere (in prep)
Sigler et al. (2010) introduced Phialosimplex as a new genus in Trichocomaceae based on the phenotypic characteristic and phylogenetic analysis using ITS and SSU sequence data (Sigler et al. 2010). However, based on further phylogenetic analysis using the ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin, and RPB2 sequences, Samson et al. (2014) suggested that genera such as Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum, Dichotomomyces, Cristaspora, and Aspergillus form a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. According to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants, and the International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus, Samson et al. (2014) proposed keeping Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. Five species had been introduced in Phialosimplex based on molecular (ITS and SSU sequence) and morphological data (Sigler et al. 2010; Greiner et al. 2014). Phialosimplex caninus is the type species (Sigler et al. 2010), obtained as a clinical isolate, from the bone marrow of dogs in the USA. Sigler et al. (2010) transferred Sagenomella chlamydospora and Sagenomella sclerotialis to Phialosimplex as Phialosimplex chlamydosporus and Phialosimplex sclerotialis, respectively. Greiner et al. (2014) based on both morphological and TSR1 (a functional tartronate semialdehyde reductase 1) and ITS sequences data, introduced Phialosimplex salinarum and transferred Basipetospora halophila to Phialosimplex as Phialosimplex halophila. The members of Phialosimplex cause mycoses in dogs and they can be differentiated from Sagenomella species and other species in the family by having lightly pigmented conidia, by producing conidia in chains or in heads on phialides, which are mostly monophialidic and sometimes polyphialidic (Sigler et al. 2010).
Fig 1- Microscopic morphologies of Phialosimplex caninus (redrawn from Sigler et al. 2010). a-c Show conidia in chains and in heads produced from phialides that are narrow, cylindrical to slightly broader at the base or swollen near the midpoint. b Polyphialid and c Monophialid phialides. Scale bars: a-c=2 μm.
Other accepted species:
Greiner K, Persoh D, Weig A, Rambold G. 2014- Phialosimplex salinarum, a new species of Eurotiomycetes from a hypersaline habitat. IMA FUNGUS 5, 161-172. https://imafungus.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.02.01
Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong SB, Hubka V, Klaassen CH, Perrone G, Seifert KA, Susca A, Tanney JB, Varga J. 2014- Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus. Studies in mycology 78, 141-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2014.07.004
Sigler L, Sutton DA, Gibas CFC, Summerbell RC, Noel RK, Iwen PC. 2010- Phialosimplex, a new anamorphic genus associated with infections in dogs and having phylogenetic affinity to the Trichocomaceae. Medical Mycology 48, 335-345.https://doi.org/10.3109/13693780903225805
Maryam Fallahi, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.
(Edited by Kevin D Hyde and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)