Fungalpedia – Note 153 Chlorophyllum 


Chlorophyllum Massee

Citation if using this entry: Sysouphanthong et al. (in prep) – Fungalpedia Basidiomycota 3. Mycosphere.

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBank, GenBank, Fig. 1–2

Classification:  Fungi, Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina, Agaricomycetes, Agaricales, Agaricaceae.

The genus Chlorophylluma saprobic genus of Agaricaceae Chevall., was established in 1898 to accumulate of the first concept of green-spored agaric mushrooms, and C. molybdites (G. Mey.) Massee is the type species (Massee 1898). Based on phylogenetic analysis Vellinga (2002) transferred 13 species from the genera Agaricus L.Endoptychum Czern.Lepiota (Pers.) GrayLeucocoprinus Pat. and Macrolepiota Singer, including species with both green and white basidiospores; and agaricoid and secotioid habits were accepted in the revised concept of the genus. In recent investigations of Chlorophyllum based on multigene molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS-LSU-rpb2-tef, six sections were accepted, which are sect. Chlorophyllum, sect. Ellipsospororum, sect. Endoptychorum (Czern.) Z.W. Ge, sect. Parvispororum Z.W. Ge, sect. Rhacodium Z.W. Ge and sect. Sphaerospororum Z.W. Ge; and colour of basidiospores are various from white, green to brown, and the habit are various from agaricoid, secotioid to gasteroid for revised concept (Crous et al. 2015Ge et al. 2018, Loizides et al. 2020).

In the analysis of Chlorophyllum by Ge et al. (2018) and Sysouphanthong et al. (2021) based on combined sequences of ITS, 28S, rpb2 and tef1 showed that Chlorophyllum was a monophyletic genus containing species with agaricoid and secotioid forms. Based on newly discovered species and analysis of combined ITS, 28S, rpb2, and tef1 sequences by Loizides et al. (2020) it was found that species with gasteroid shapes, C. arizonicum (Shear & Griffiths) G. Moreno & Altés, C. levantinum Loizides, P. Alvarado & Konstantinou and C. lusitanicum G. Moreno, Muñ.-Moh., Manjón, Carlavilla & Altés clustered in sect. Sphaerospororum, where the type species is an agaricoid form C. sphaerosporum Z.W. Ge & Zhu L. Yang and Secotium gueinzii Kunze with hemiangiocarpic form is located in sect.  Chlorophyllum with an agaricoid habit. 

The present concept of Chlorophyllum is a saprobic genus, white to green and brown basidiospores, consisting of agaricoid to secotioid and gasteroid forms or habits; and 21 species are accepted (Ge et al. 2018He et al. 2019Loizides et al. 2020Dutta et al. 2020).

Synonymy: Endoptychum Czern.

Type species: Chlorophuyllum molybdites (G. Mey.) Massee


Other accepted species: 

Chlorophyllum abruptibulbum (R. Heim) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum africanum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs

Chlorophyllum agaricoides (Czern.) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum alborubescens (Hongo) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum arizonicum (Shear & Griffiths) G. Moreno & Altés

Chlorophyllum bharatense Sathe & S.M. Kulk.

Chlorophyllum brunneum (Farl. & Burt) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum demangei (Pat.) Z.W. Ge & Zhu L. Yang

Chlorophyllum globosum (Mossebo) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum hortense (Murrill) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum humei (Murrill) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum levantinum Loizides, P. Alvarado & Konstantinou

Chlorophyllum lusitanicum G. Moreno, Muñ.-Moh., Manjón, Carlavilla & Altés

Chlorophyllum madagascariense (L.M. Dufour) Heinem.

Chlorophyllum mammillatum (Murrill) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum molybdites (G. Mey.) Massee

Chlorophyllum morganii (Peck) Massee

Chlorophyllum neomastoideum (Hongo) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum nothorhacodes Vellinga & Lepp

Chlorophyllum olivieri (Barla) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum palaeotropicum Z.W. Ge & A. Jacobs

Chlorophyllum pseudoglobosum J. Sarkar, A.K. Dutta & K. Acharya

Chlorophyllum rhacodes (Vittad.) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum shimogaense Sathe & S.M. Kulk.

Chlorophyllum sphaerosporum Z.W. Ge & Zhu L. Yang

Chlorophyllum squamulosum A.K. Dutta, Soumili Bera & K. Acharya

Chlorophyllum subfulvidiscum (Murrill) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum subrhacodes (Murrill) Vellinga

Chlorophyllum venenatum (Bon) C. Lange & Vellinga



Figure 1. Chlorophyllum molybdites in situ. a,b= MFLU 12-1775. Photos from Sysouphanthong et al. (2021).




Figure 2. Chlorophyllum molybdites (MFLU 12-1775). a. basidiomata. b. basidiospores. c a trichodermal pileus covering. Scale bars: a-b= 10 mm, a-e = 10 µm. Line drawing from Sysouphanthong et al. (2021).



Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Le Roux JJ, Richardson DM, Strasberg D et al. 2015 – Fungal Planet description sheets: 371–399. Persoonia 35, 264–327.

Dutta AK, Bera S, Paloi S, Rakshit S, Tarafder E, Sherpa AR, Acharya K 2020 – Lepiotaceous fungi ofWest Bengal, India: The genus Chlorophyllum. Phytotaxa 451, 113–131.

Ge ZW, Jacobs A, Vellinga EC’ Sysouphanthong P, van der Walt R, Lavorato C, An YF, Yang ZL 2018 – A multi-gene phylogeny of Chlorophyllum (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota): new species, new combination and infrageneric classification. MycoKeys 32, 65–90.

He MQ, Zhao RL, Hyde KD, Begerow D, Kemler M et al. 2019 – Notes, outline and divergence times of Basidiomycota. Fungal Diversity 99, 105–367.

Loizides M, Alvarado P, Polemis E, Dimou DM, Zervakis DG et al. 2020 – Multiple evolutionary origins of sequestrate species in the agaricoid genus Chlorophyllum. Mycologia 112, 400–422.

Massee GE 1898 – Fungi exotici, I. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Informations of the Royal Botanical Gardens Kew 138, 135.

Sysouphanthong P, Thongklang N, Liu JK, Vellinga EC 2021 – Description of lepiotaceous fungal species of the genera Chlorophyllum, Clarkeinda, Macrolepiota, Pseudolepiota, and Xanthagaricus, from Laos and Thailand. Diversity 13, 666.

Vellinga EC 2002 – New combinations in Chlorophyllum. Mycotaxon 83, 415–417.


Entry by

Phongeun Sysouphanthong, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde)