Fungalpedia – Note 189Parmathyrites (Fossil Fungi)


Parmathyrites K.P. Jain & R.C. Gupta.

Citation when using this data: Saxena RK & Hyde KD. 2024 (in prep) – Fungalpedia, Fossil Fungi. 

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBankGenBank, Fig. 1            

Classification: Microthyriales, Dothideomycetes, Fossil Ascomycota, Fungi.

Jain & Gupta (1970) introduced Parmathyrites from the Miocene (23–5 mya) sediments of Padappakkara, Quilon District, Kerala, India. This genus was characterized by flattened, non-oscillate; circular, one-layer thick ascomata with radially arranged, interconnected hyphae that formed pseudoparenchymatous non-porate cells. The outer peripheral cells are prominent, with thickened radial walls. Spines are peripheral; spine sheath present or absent. Ascospores are unknown. Jain (1974) amended the generic diagnosis to include ostiolate ascomata with distinct ostioles that are not surrounded by specialized cells. Subsequently, Gupta (1994) revised the generic diagnosis to include both ostiolate and non-oscillate ascomata. There are five species included in Index Fungorum (2023) under this genus.

Type species: Parmathyrites indicus Jain & Gupta.



Figure 1 – Parmathyrites indicus. Scale bar = 50 μm. Redrawn from Jain & Gupta (1970).



Gupta A. 1994 – Fungal fruiting bodies from Lower Tertiary sediments of Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 115, 247–259.

Jain KP. 1974 – Fossil fungi; pp. 38–46 in Surange K.R. et al. (eds.) – Aspects and Appraisal of Indian Palaeobotany, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. 

Jain KP, Gupta RC. 1970 – Some fungal remains from the Tertiaries of Kerala Coast. Palaeobotanist 18, 177–182. 


Entry by

Ramesh K. SaxenaBirbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India


(Edited by Kevin D. Hyde, Samaneh Chaharmiri-Dokhaharani, & Achala R. Rathnayaka)