Fungalpedia – Note 177 Kalviwadithyrites (Fossil Fungi)


Kalviwadithyrites Rao in Saxena. 

Citation when using this data: Saxena RK & Hyde KD. 2024 (in prep) – Fungalpedia, Fossil Fungi. 

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBankGenBankFig. 1

Classification: Microthyriaceae, MicrothyrialesDothideomycetesAscomycota, Fossil Fungi.

The monotypic fossil genus Kalviwadithyrites was instituted by Rao (2003) based on specimens from the Sindhudurg Formation (Miocene, 23–5 mya) in Kalviwadi, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra, India. However, Rao (2003) failed to validly publish the generic name Kalviwadithyrites, because he did not include information on where the holotype of its type species was stored (Turland et al. 2018: Art. 40.7). Subsequently, Saxena (2012) validated Kalviwadithyrites and its type species by providing the missing validation information. Kalviwadithyrites is characterized by a subcircular to circular, dimidiate, and non-ostiolate cleistothecium. Two types of non-porate cells are present: marginal cells are rectangular to polygonal, larger in size, and cover the outer part; central cells, which are 2 or 3 layers thick, squarish, and isodiametric. No hyphae are present. Only one species listed in Index Fungorum (2023) under this genus.

Type species: Kalviwadithyrites saxenae M.R. Rao in R.K. Saxena 2012.


Figure 1 – Kalviwadithyrites saxenaeScale bar = 25 μm. Redrawn from Rao (2003).



Rao MR. 2003 – Kalviwadithyrites, a new fungal fruiting body from Sindhudurg Formation (Miocene) of Maharashtra, India. Palaeobotanist 52(1-3), 117–119. 

Saxena RK. 2012 – Validation of names of fossil fungi from Tertiary sediments of India. Novon 22, 223–226.

Turland NJ, Wiersema JH, Barrie FR, Greuter W, et al. 2018 – International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books. 


Entry by

Ramesh K. SaxenaBirbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India


(Edited by Kevin D. Hyde, Samaneh Chaharmiri-Dokhaharani, & Achala R. Rathnayaka)