Fungalpedia – Note 233Frondicola


Frondicola K.D. Hyde.

Index FungorumFacesoffungiMycoBank, GenBank, Fig. 1

Citation when using this entry: Li et al. 2024 (in prep) – Fungalpedia, Xylariomycetidae. 

Classification: Hyponectriaceae, Xylariales, Xylariomycetidae, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota, Fungi.

Frondicola was established by Hyde (1992)based on morphology. The type species, F. tunitricuspis was found on the decaying fronds of Nypa fruticans (Arecaceae) in the intertidal region of the South China Sea (Brunei). Frondicola has dark ascomata with central ostiolar dots, immersed beneath a clypeus with variable stromatic development, septate paraphyses, tapering towards the apices, 8-spored, cylindrical asci, short pedunculate, with J-, apical ring, uniseriate, hyaline, ellipsoidal ascospores, and surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath (Hyde 1992). 

The presence of paraphyses attached to asci excludes this genus from Diaporthaceae, while most Phyllachoraceae are parasitic and distinguishable by their soft clypeus and more delicate asci (Hyde 1992). It may be possible to include Frondicola in the Clypeosphaeriaceae (Barr 1990), although this group is presently synonymous with the Amphisphaeriaceae (Eriksson & Hawksworth 1990). The apical apparatus in Frondicola was Melzer’s negative, and the genus was therefore excluded from AmphisphaeriaceaeLumbsch & Huhndorf (2010) included this genus under Annulatascaceae, Sordariomycetidae, and incertae sedis. Currently, Frondicola placed in Hyponectriaceae (Jones et al. 2009Maharachchikumbura et al. 20152016Hyde et al. 2020Wijayawardene et al. 2020, 2022). Only one species included in the species Fungorum (2024) under this genus. DNA sequence data of the type species is unavailable in NCBI (; accessed on February 2024). Fresh collections and DNA sequence data are required to confirm phylogenetic relationships of Frondicola.

Type species: Frondicola tunitricuspis K.D. Hyde

Figure 1 – Frondicola tunitricuspis (BRIP17110, holotype). a Ascomata on the host substrate. b Section of ascoma. c Ascus with paraphyses. d, e Ascospores. Scale bars: a = 1 mm, b = 300 μm, c, d, e = 10 μm. Redrawn from Hyde (1992).


Barr ME. 1990  Prodromus to nonlichenized, pyrenomycetous members of class Hymenoascomycetes. Mycotaxon 39, 43184. 

Eriksson OE, Hawksworth DL. 1990  Outline of the Ascomycetes1989. Systema 

Ascomycetum 8, 119318. 

Hyde KD. 1992 – Fungi from decaying intertidal fronds of Nypa fruticans, including three new genera and four new species. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 110, 95–110. 

Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. 2020 – Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11, 305–1059

Jones EBG, Sakayaroj J, Suetrong S, Somrithipol S et al. 2009 – Classification of marine Ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Diversity 35, 1–187. 

Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM. 2010 – Outline of Ascomycota–2009. Fieldiana Life and Earth Sciences 1, 1–60. 

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2015 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72, 199–301. 

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – 

Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317. 

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LKT, Tedersoo L et al. 2020 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa. Mycosphere 11, 1060 –1456. 

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Dai DQ, Sánchez-García M et al. 2022 – Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa–2021. Mycosphere 13, 53–453. 


Entry by

Yanxia Li and Mingkwan Doilom, Innovative Institute for Plant Health/ Key Laboratory of Green Prevention and Control on Fruits and Vegetables in South China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, 510225, China.


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde, Mingkwan Doilom, Samaneh Chaharmiri-Dokhaharani, & Achala R. Rathnayaka)