Fungalpedia – Note 61 Craterellus


Craterellus Pers.

Citation if using this entry: Bera et al. (2023) Fungalpedia, Basidiomycota. Mycosphere (in prep)

Index Fungorum, MycoBank, GenBank, Fig. 1


In the phylogenetic study by Hibbett and Thorn (2001), a cantharelloid clade was first recognized to accommodate this morpho-diverse group of mushrooms which clustered with the chanterelles group. With Craterellus, the name Cantharellus has consistently been linked in the chanterelles group which is characterized mainly by the no strict division between the pileus and the stipe and the presence of “false gills” (Dahlman et al. 2000). Fries (1821) originally defined Cantharellus, but later Persoon (1825) separated some species with hollow stipes and erected Craterellus. However, the distinction between these two genera has always been controversial (Corner 1966, Petersen 1971). The genus Craterellus Pers., typified with C. cornucopioides (L.) Pers. (Persoon 1825), is currently a member of the family Hydnaceae of the order Cantharellales (Hibbett et al. 2014). The representatives of this genus have typical funnel-shaped basidiomata, with usually dark grey to blackish or yellowish coloured pileus (Corner 1966). The context of the stipe is always hollow in Craterellus (Corner 1966). The monophyly of the genus has been confirmed by the molecular phylogenetic study by Hibbett et al. (2014). Craterellus has been quite popular in culinary uses for its edibility and is an economically, medicinally, and ecologically important group of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms (Pilz et al. 2003, Trappe 2004). Many bioprospecting has been undertaken on species of Craterellus. For instance, the type species, C. cornucopioides has been revealed to have antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and antitumor activities (Beluhan & Ranogajec 2011Liu et al. 2012Fan et al. 2014). Since its ethnomycological importance, Craterellus has been well documented in the northern temperate zones and also in tropics (Dahlman et al. 2000). Many species have been reported from the countries of Africa, America, and Asia (Dahlman et al. 2000Matheny et al. 2010Beluhan & Ranogajec 2011Kumari et al. 2012Wilson et al. 2012Das et al. 2017Hembrom et al. 2017Bijeesh et al. 2018Zhong et al. 2018Zhang et al. 2020Cao et al. 2021abZhang et al. 2022Zhao et al. 2022) reflecting to the approximately 162 records of Craterellus (including infraspecific taxa) in Index Fungorum ( However, based on the phylogenetic analysis using nrITS and nrLSU marker genes, many species have been transferred to other genera (Zhao et al. 2022). As per MycoBank ( nearly 100 names have been considered legitimate to date (Zhao et al. 2022). 

Type species: Craterellus cornucopioides (L.) Pers. 


Fig 1. Craterellus aureus (FHMU2100, FHMU6549) a. Basidiomata. b. Basidiospores. c. Basidia. d. Pileipellis. Scale bars: b-d = 10 μm. Drawn from Zhang et al. 2022.




Beluhan S, Ranogajec A 2011 – Chemical composition and non-volatile components of Croatian wild edible mushrooms. Food Chem., 124, 1076–1082.

Bijeesh C, Kumar AM, Vrinda KB, Pradeep CK 2018 – Two new species of Craterellus (Cantharellaceae) from tropical India. Phytotaxa, 346, 157–168.

Cao T, Hu YP, Yu JR, Wei TZ, Yuan HS 2021b – A phylogenetic overview of the Hydnaceae (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) with new taxa from China. Stud. Mycol., 99, 100–121.

Cao T, Yu JR, Hu YP, Yuan HS 2021a – Craterellus atrobrunneolus sp. nov. from southwestern China. Mycotaxon, 136, 59–71.

Corner EJH 1966 – A monograph of cantharelloid fungi. London: Oxford University Press.

Dahlman M, Danell E, Spatafora JW 2000 – Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data. Mycological research, 104(4), 388–394.

Das K, Ghosh A, Chakraborty D, Li J, Qiu L, Baghela A….Buyck B 2017 – Fungal biodiversity profiles, 31–40. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 38(3), 353–406.

Fan XD, Chen YH, Chang J, Chen J 2014 – Structure and antitumor activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Craterellus cornucopioides. Mod. Food Sci. Technol., 30, 50–54.

Fries EM 1821 – Systema Mycologicum, sistens fungorum ordines, genera et species huc usque cognitas. Vol. I. Berlin: Lund.

Hembrom ME, Das K, Adhikari S, Parihar A, Buyck B 2017 – First report of Pterygellus from Rajmahal hills of Jharkhand (India) and its relation to Craterellus (Hydnaceae, Cantharellales). Phytotaxa, 306, 201–210.

Hibbett DS, Bauer R, Binder M, Giachini AJ, Hosaka K, Justo A…….Thorn RG 2014 – 14. Agaricomycetes. Systematics and evolution: part A, 373–429.

Hibbett DS, Thorn RG 2001 Basidiomycota: homobasidiomycetes. Systematics and evolution, 121-168.

Kumari D, Upadhyay RC, Reddy MS 2012 – Craterellus indicus sp. nov., a new species associated with Cedrus deodara from the western Himalayas, India. Mycol. Prog., 11, 769–774.

Liu YT, Sun J, Luo ZY, Rao SQ, Su YJ, Xu RR…….Yang YJ 2012 – Chemical composition of five wild edible mushrooms collected from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity. Food Chem. Toxicol., 50, 1238–1244.

Matheny PB, Austin EA, Birkebak JM, Wolfenbarger AD 2010 – Craterellus fallax, a black trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad host range. Mycorrhiza, 20, 569–575.

Persoon CH 1825 – Mycologia Europaea. Erlanga.

Petersen RH 1971 – Interfamilial relationships in the clavarioid and cantharelloid fungi. Evolution in the higher basidiomycetes, 345–374.

Pilz D, Norvell L, Danell E, Molina R 2003 – Ecology and management of commercially harvested chanterelle mushrooms. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Trappe, M. J. (2004). Habitat and host associations of Craterellus tubaeformis in northwestern Oregon. Mycologia, 96(3), 498-509.

Wilson AW, Aime MC, Dierks J, Mueller GM, Henkel TW 2012 – Cantharellaceae of Guyana I: new species, combinations and distribution records of Craterellus and a synopsis of known taxa. Mycologia, 104, 1466–1477.

Zhang J, Wu DI, Deng CY, Zhang M, Dauner L, Wijayawardene NN 2020 – A new species of Craterellus (Cantharellales, Hydnaceae) from Guizhou Province, China. Phytotaxa, 472, 259–268.

Zhang YZ, Zhang P, Buyck B, Tang LP, Liang ZQ, Su MS……Zeng NK 2022 – A Contribution to Knowledge of Craterellus (Hydnaceae, Cantharellales) in China: Three New Taxa and Amended Descriptions of Two Previous Species. Frontiers in Microbiology, 13.

Zhao GP, Hu JJ, Tuo YL, Li Y, Zhang B 2022 – Two new species of Craterellus (Cantharellales, Hydnaceae) with veined hymenophore from north-eastern China. MycoKeys, 91, 97–111.

Zhong XR, Li TH, Jiang ZD, Deng WQ, Huang H 2018 – A new yellow species of Craterellus (Cantharellales, Hydnaceae) from China. Phytotaxa, 360, 35–44.


Entry by

Ishika Bera, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde)