Fungalpedia – Note 101 Bryostigma


Bryostigma Poelt & Döbbeler

Citation when using this entry: Meng et al., in prep – Fungalpedia, lichenicolous genera. Mycosphere.

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBankGenBank, Fig 1

Bryostigma was established by Poelt & Döbbeler (1979) to accommodate the lichen B. leucodontis which is characterized by the red or blue iodine staining of its hyphae, an undifferentiated excipulum, the type of asci, the small size of the fruiting bodies and its growth on moss (Poelt & Döbbeler 1979). Kondratyuk et al. (20192020) published a phylogenetic tree of Arthoniaceae based on concatenated SSU and rpb2 sequences. This showed that eight species of Arthonia clustered with Bryostigma muscicolaKondratyuk et al. (20192020) therefore transferred these species to Bryostigma based on the phylogenetic analysis. These species are all lichenicolous except for B. lapidicola, which is a lichen. Bryostigma dokdoensis is similar to B. parietinaria, but causes much smaller infection spots (from very indistinct to more or less recognizable to 0.5–1 mm across), and have smaller ascomata (0.08–) 0.1 – 0.13 (–0.14) mm wide, single, round and more or less regular.  Bryostigma dokdoensis also has a lower mean number of ascomata per infection spot (5–10 apothecia together in spots to 0.4–0.6 mm diam.), more common conidiomata (conidiomata below ascomata and numerous at the first stages of infection development; conidia 3–4 × 0.8 mm) (Kondratyuk et al. 2019). Etayo et al. (2023) identified that Arthonia excentrica, previously classified as a lichen by Fries (1867), formed a grouping with Bryostigma molendoi and B. dokdoense. Notably, this species is more aligned with its host, encompassing certain members of Lepraria and Leprocaulon. Etayo therefore transferred Arthonia excentrica to Bryostigma excentricum. This species is characterized by I+ red spore walls, a brown hypothecium and 11–13 × 5–6 μm (Etayo et al. 2023). There are 13 lichenicolous species in this genus and 43 sequences belonging to LSU, ITS, rpb2 and SSU in GenBank.

Type species: Bryostigma leucodontis Poelt & Döbbeler, Crustose lichen on moss

Other accepted species (lichenicolous):

Bryostigma apotheciorum (A. Massal.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Myriolecis albescens

Bryostigma biatoricola (Ihlen & Owe-Larss.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Biatora efflorescens

Bryostigma dokdoense (S.Y. Kondr., Lőkös, B.G. Lee, J.J. Woo & Hur) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Orientophila

Bryostigma epiphyscium (Nyl.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Physcia

Bryostigma excentricum (Th. Fr.) Etayo & Pino-Bodas, on Lepraria and Leprocaulon

Bryostigma huriellae     S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Huriella pohangensis

Bryostigma lobariellae (Etayo) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on lobariellae

Bryostigma molendoi (Heufl. ex Arnold) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Caloplaca and Xanthoria

Bryostigma neglectulum (Nyl.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Lepraria neglecta?

Bryostigma parietinarium (Hafellner & Fleischhacker) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Xanthoria parietina

Bryostigma peltigerinum (Almq.) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Peltigera and Solorina

Bryostigma phaeophysciae (Grube & Matzer) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Phaeophyscia orbicularis

Bryostigma stereocaulinum (Ohlert) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, on Stereocaulon


Other accepted species (lichens):

Bryostigma curvata Serusiaux,Foliicolous lichen

Bryostigma lapalmae van den Boom & Ertz, Foliicolous lichen

Bryostigma lapidicola (Taylor) S.Y. Kondr. & Hur, Crustose lichen on stone

Bryostigma muscigenum (Th. Fr.) Frisch & G. Thor, Crustose lichen on moss



Figure 1 – Bryostigma leucodontis (redrawn from Poelt & Döbbeler, 1979). a Apothecium. b-f Asci. g Ascospores. Scale bars: a = 40 μm, b-f = 10 μm, g = 5 μm.



Etayo J, Sancho L, Pino-Bodas R. 2023 – Taxonomic and phylogenetic approach to some Antarctic lichenicolous fungi. Mycological Progress 22, 1-18.

Fries TM. 1867 – Lichenes Spitsbergenses. Kongliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlinger, ser. 2, 7, 3-53.

Kondratyuk S, Lőkös L, Halda J, Lee BG et al. 2019 – Arthonia dokdoensis and Rufoplaca toktoana–two new taxa from Dokdo Islands (South Korea). Mycobiology 47, 355-367.

Kondratyuk SY, Upreti D, Mishra G, Nayaka S et al. 2020 – New and noteworthy lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi 10. Acta Botanica Hungarica 62, 69–108.

Poelt J, Döbbeler P. 1979 – Bryostigma leucodontis nov. gen. et spec., eine neue flechte mit fast unsichtbaren fruchtkörpern/Bryostigma leucodontis nov. gen. et spec., a new lichen with almost invisible fruiting bodies. Plant Systematics and Evolution 211–216.


Entry by

Meng QF, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand and School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Guizhou 563000, China


(Edited by Vinodhini Thiyagaraja & Kevin D. Hyde)