Fungalpedia – Note 65 Aquasubmersa


Aquasubmersa K.D. Hyde & Huang Zhang

Citation when using this data: Huanraluek et al. Fungalpedia, coelomycetes. Mycosphere (in prep).

Index Fungorum, Facesoffungi, MycoBankGenBank, Fig 1.


Aquasubmersa was initially described as a coelomycetous genus (AquasubmersaceaePleosporalesPleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes), based on phylogenetic of nuclear rDNA small subunit (18S; SSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (28S; LSU) regions translation elongation factor 1-  (tef1) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) gene (Zhang et al. 2012, Hashimoto et al. 2017, Li et al. 2020). This genus (with A. mircensiswas first found on submerged wood in freshwater habit, in Thailand (Zhang et al. 2012). The asexual morph of this genus has subglobose, semi-immersed to superficial pycnidia. Conidiogenous cells are determinate, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall and conidia are ellipsoidal, hyaline, guttulate without gelatinous sheath (Zhang et al. 2012, Li et al. 2020). Later, Ariyawansa et al. (2015) reported A. japonicum from Japan with sexual and asexual morphs. The sexual morphs were characterized by dark brown to black, immersed to semi-immersed, and oscillated ascomata. The peridium is composed of thick-walled, cells of textura angularis. The hamathecium comprises asci and pseudoparaphyses. Asci are 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical, with a short pedicel, apically rounded, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores are biseriate, hyaline, broadly fusiform with rounded ends, straight, with a mostly median septum, with a gelatinous sheath (Ariyawansa et al. 2015, Hashimoto et al. 2017, Li et al. 2020). 

            Aquasubmersa comprises two species that have been recorded in Species Fungorum – search Aquasubmersa (accessed on 26 May 2023). This genus is distributed in Thailand and Japan on submerged wood in freshwater and dead wood (Zhang et al. 2012, Ariyawansa et al. 2015


Type species: Aquasubmersa mircensis Huang Zhang & K.D. Hyde

Other accepted species: Aquasubmersa japonica A. Hashim. & Kaz. Tanaka 


Fig 1 – Aquasubmersa mircensis (redrawn from Li et al. 2020) a Vertical section of conidioma. b Section of peridium. c Conidiogenous cells and developing conidia. d Conidia. Scale bars: a = 100 µm, b-d = 10 µm. 


Ariyawansa HA, Hyde KD, Jayasiri SC, Buyck B, et al. 2015– Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 75, 27–274.

Hashimoto A, Matsumura M, Hirayama K, Tanaka K. 2017– Revision of Lophiotremataceae ( Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes): Aquasubmersaceae, Cryptocoryneaceae, and Hermatomycetaceae fam. nov. Persoonia 39, 51–73. 

Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, et al. 2020– Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100, 279–801.

Zhang H, Hyde KD, Mckenzie EHC, Ali HB, et al. 2012– Sequence Data Reveals Phylogenetic Affinities of Acrocalymma aquatica sp. nov., Aquasubmersa mircensis gen. et sp. nov. and Clohesyomyces aquaticus (Freshwater Coelomycetes). Cryptogamie, Mycologie 33(3), 333–346.


Entry by

Naruemon Huanraluek, Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand.


(Edited by Kevin D Hyde and Ruvishika S. Jayawardena)