Rhynchosporium was characterized for the first time by Oudemans (1897) as Marsonia secalis from rye in the Netherlands. Frank (1897) found the same disease on barley and rye in Germany caused by the same pathogen. Heinsen (1901) reclassified the fungus in Rhynchosporium based on its typical beak‐shaped, one‐septate spores, naming it Rhynchosporium graminicola.. Rhynchosporium species are classified into two groups based on conidial shape (King et al. 2013). Rhynchosporium commune, R. agropyri, and R. secalis are characterized by beak-shaped conidia while R. orthosporum and R. lolii have cylindrical conidia (King et al. 2013). All the species of this genus cause scald disease on gramineous plants (Fig 1) (King et al. 2013).
Disease symptoms: Rhynchosporium commune causes scald disease which is characterized by typical lesions on leaves, ears and leaf sheaths. In the early stages, pale grey oval spots appear. With time, the margins of spots turn dark brown while the center of the spots stays pale green or pale brown. As the disease progress, the lesions merge and yellowing is observed in most parts of the leaves. If the leaf axil is infected, it will eventually lead to chlorosis and death of the leaf (Avrova and Knogge 2012).